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Routing - BGP, WAN, LiSP

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet.[1] The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol, but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing protocol. The Border Gateway Protocol does not use Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) metrics, but makes routing decisions based on paths, network policies and/or rule-sets configured by a network administrator. The Border Gateway Protocol plays a key role in the overall operation of the Internet and is involved in making core routing decisions.

BGP may be used for routing within an AS. In this application it is referred to as Interior Border Gateway Protocol, Internal BGP or iBGP. In contrast, the Internet application of the protocol may be referred to as Exterior Border Gateway Protocol, External BGP or EBGP.

BGP is the successor to the Exterior Gateway Protocol. BGP is currently the most widely used exterior gateway protocol by Internet service providers. BGP was originally designed to help transition from the core ARPAnet model to a decentralized system that included the NSFNET backbone and its associated regional networks

LISP stands for Locator/ID Separation Protocol and is a next-generation IP routing feature that creates a new paradigm in how IP addressing is assigned and interpreted by splitting the device identity, known as an endpoint identifier (EID), and its location, known as its routing locator (RLOC), into two different namespaces. Creating separate IP addresses for EID and RLOC functions yields several advantages, including improved scalability of the routing system through greater aggregation of RLOCs and improved multihoming efficiency and ingress traffic engineering.

Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) is a routing architecture that provides new semantics for IP addressing. The current IP routing and addressing architecture uses a single numbering space, the IP address, to express two pieces of information:

  • Device identity
  • The way the device attaches to the network

The LISP routing architecture design separates the device identity, or endpoint identifier (EID), from its location, or routing locator (RLOC), into two different numbering spaces. Splitting EID and RLOC functions yields several advantages.

Simplify Routing Operations

LISP enables enterprises and service providers to:

  • Simplify multihomed routing
  • Facilitate scalable any-to-any WAN connectivity
  • Support data center virtual machine mobility

Improve Scalability and Support

LISP routing architecture also:

  • Improves scalability of the routing system through greater aggregation of RLOCs
  • Optimizes IP routing for both IPv4 and IPv6 hosts
  • Reduces operational complexities

LISP can be gradually introduced into an existing IP network without affecting the network endpoints or hosts.

LISP is a Cisco innovation that is being promoted as an open standard. Cisco participates in standards bodies such as the IETF LISP Working Group to develop the LISP architecture.



This session will discuss the key improvements to BGP for both IPv4 and IPv6 to increase scalability and performance, and will provide technical insight upon few up-coming features (GSHUT, DDoS Mitigation, Secure origin BGP, etc...) .


This session looks at how BGP networks can scale. We will explain design and deployment principles that will lead to greater scalability in BGP networks.  Basic BGP knowledge is a pre-requisite for this session.


This session will help participants understand the available technologies and how they can be applied while minimizing operational complexity. The session will highlight key areas including a review of commonly used and emerging technologies (i.e., BGP, PfR, and LISP), common scenarios that illustrate how each technology operates, best practice designs, and an overview of advanced case studies involving multiple technologies/products (i.e., Multiple Firewalls, Multiple Data Centers, NAT/PAT, and IPv6).


This session examines a framework for troubleshooting that provides attendees with various tools and techniques that they can use to make troubleshooting BGP networks easier.


This session is designed for Service Providers and Enterprises that are transitioning their Wide Area Networks (WAN) from traditional TDM and POS technologies to Ethernet and OTN.


The WAN Architectures and Design Principles session offers an end-to-end design approach featuring the Smart Business Architecture with key areas of focus including resilient IP forwarding, QoS, application optimisation, and data privacy and security. (Click to read more)


This session will also introduce some of the new innovations for Layer 3 including MPLS VPN over mGRE and LISP for L3 segmentation, and touch on Software Defined Networking (SDN) as it begins to evolve.


LISP is a network architecture and set of protocols that utilises a level of indirection to separate an IP address into two namespaces: Endpoint Identifiers (EIDs), which are assigned to end-hosts, and Routing Locators (RLOCs), which are assigned to devices (primarily routers) that make up the global routing system.


The session will show practical LISP use-cases. Starting with a very short refresher on LISP the speaker will explain typical IP networking problems which will be solved by LISP.


This session discusses how next generation technologies such as LISP and OTV solve the networking issues associated with VM mobility and multi-tenant segmentation in the data center.


This session introduces LISP (Locator/ID Separation Protocol) on the Catalyst 6500. LISP is a routing architecture designed to enhance route scalability and efficient IP addressing in a network. This session will provide an overall understanding of the benefits and application of LISP in the Campus, and how the technology is implemented on the Catalyst 6500 platform with Supervisor 2T.